Drilling fluid is made of dispersion medium, dispersion phase and additive.

Drilling fluid is mainly made of liquid phase, solid phase and chemical treating agent. Liquid phase can be water (fresh water, saline), oil (crude, diesel oil) or lactescence (mix oil emulsion and inverse emulsion). Solid phase is including useful solid phase (expansive soil, additivi material) and the useless solid phase( rock). Chemical treating agent is including inorganic, organic and polymer compound.

Water base drilling fluid is use the water as dispersion medium, it is a sol Suspension hybrid system. The major components are water, clay, additive and all kinds of chemical treating agent. There are five stages of the base water drilling fluid, the nature drilling fluid (1904-1921), fine dispersion drilling fluid (1921-1946), coarse dispersion drilling fluid (1946-1937), don’t spread low solid phase drilling fluid (1966 until now).

The base water drilling fluid is divided into;

a The fresh water drilling fluid. The content of sodium chloride is less than 10mg/cm&sup3, the content of calcium ion is less than 0.12mg/cm³。

b The saline drilling fluid ( seawater and salt water drilling fluid included). The content of sodium chloride is higher than 0.12mg/cm³.

c The saturated salt water drilling fluid. It is saturated solution with a kind or various soluble salt.

d The calcium treatment drilling fluid. The content of calcium ion is less than 0.12mg/cm³

e The hybrid emulsion drilling fluid, it has the water base drilling fluid with 3%-40% emulsified oil.

     f The don’t disperse and low solid phase polymer drilling fluid, the contend of solid phase is less than 4%, it has the moderate polymer

     g The potassium base drilling fluid, the content of the potassium chloride is higher than 3%, from 1978, it was used in our country oil field.

    h The polymer drilling fluid. The polymer as the main body, the ingredients is viscosity reducer, filtrate reducer, prevent collapse agent,

lubricant and all kinds of chemical treating agent. It is a new drilling fluid system developed in the 1980s.

 

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